During the first years of post-independence Burma, insurgencies by the Red Flag Communists led by Thakin Soe, the White Flag Communists led by Thakin Than Tun, the Yèbaw Hpyu (White-band PVO) led by Bo La Yaung, a member of the Thirty Comrades, army rebels calling themselves the Revolutionary Burma Army (RBA) led by communist officers Bo Zeya, Bo Yan Aung and Bo Yè Htut – all three of them members of the Thirty Comrades, Arakanese, and the Karen National Union (KNU).[1]. [1], Ne Win had already succeeded in stripping the Shan Sawbwas of their feudal powers in exchange for comfortable pensions for life in 1959. “Let us rejoice at the independence which has come to us today, the result of sacrifices undergone by us and those who preceded us in the years that have passed.”. And soon with the Japanese being defeated Burma gained its independence on 4th January, 1948 at 4:20am. Since Burma gained independence from the British in 1948, ethnic minorities – perhaps most significantly the Karen – have been locked in a simmering succession of war … Independence has hardly been a cause for celebration. The Burmese government refused to acknowledge the Rohingya as rightful citizens. High school and university students receive drill instructions in Laiza, which lies in a Kachin Independence Army–controlled part of Kachin state, in Burma, on Nov. 10, 2014. On January 4th 1948, the Union of Burma gained its independence from Britain. Serving as minister of defense in Ba Maw’s puppet government (1943–45), Aung San became skeptical of Japanese promises of … In the 70 years since Myanmar gained independence, the country has experienced waves of violence, political unrest, and military rule. It was after that year that General Saw Maung led coup that altered the English name to become Myanmar. 3. Presidents Of Myanmar (Burma) History of the Burmese Presidency. The country's civilian government was overthrown in a military coup in 1962, initiating a period of political instability, repression, and … Burma was renamed Myanmar in 1989 by its military government. What happened in Burma after it gained independence? 3. The Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP), an ethnic rebel organization, was founded by Saw Maw Reh. Burma/Myanmar. [1] Burma accepted foreign assistance in rebuilding the country in these early years, but continued American support for the Chinese Nationalist military presence in Burma finally resulted in the country rejecting most foreign aid, refusing to join the Southeast Asia Treaty Organisation (SEATO) and supporting the Bandung Conference of 1955. Burma/Myanmar. 3) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that conferred independence on Burma, today called Myanmar. The list includes territories that have gained independence ... Burma; Union of Burma became independent from United Kingdom (and see subsequent changes in 1989, 2010 and 2019). With its economy shattered and its towns and villages destroyed during the war, Burma needed peace. Burma gained independence from Great Britain in 1948 and this issue is a problem that Burma has had to grapple with since that time. Why was governing Indonesia proven difficult? In 1990, when the military group lost the elections, they refused to accept the results and … In 1989, the government changed the country’s name to Myanmar. Burma … They were chased out by the Japanese in 1941 and returned briefly following World War II. It changed its name to Myanmar and there were many generals ruling. Sadly, after decades of mismanagement by post-independence dictators, Myanmar has become one of the poorest nations in the world. Since independence, Malaysia has been highly successful in. The regime’s justification of the name change was that Myanmar felt more inclusive of the minority cultures and ethnicities in comparis… Thibaw Sawbwa Sao Kya Seng also disappeared mysteriously after being stopped at a checkpoint near Taunggyi. Military leaders took over. 1945 The Japanese left in 1945, and, in 1948, Burma gained its independence from the British. Myanmar had its first president in 1948 after the country gained independence from the British. After independence the Union of Burma was created in accordance with the 1947 Constitution of Burma. U Nu & Early Woes. Ethnic conflict has engulfed Burma since the country gained independence from British rule in 1948, aggravated by decades of junta rule and militarization. Military leaders took over. In the 70 years since Myanmar gained independence, the country has experienced waves of violence, political unrest, and military rule. When Bangladesh gained independence in December 1971, the Burmese attitude to the new State was formal and correct. Among them was the NUF leader Aung Than, older brother of Aung San. By 1886 Burma was occupied by British ruled India. On 4 January 1948 at 4.20 am, the nation became an independent republic, named the Union of Burma in which the time was chosen for its auspiciousness by an astrologer, with Sao Shwe Thaik as its first President and U Nu as its first Prime Minister. [1] Over 400 'communist sympathisers' were arrested, of which 153 were deported to the Coco Islands in the Andaman Sea. Independence for the Indonesian Archipelago A direct consequence of Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies during the Second World War was the emergence of Indonesian nationalism. Participating classes will be eligible for prizes and could be featured on findingDulcinea. Remote areas of northern Burma were for many years controlled by an army of Kuomintang (KMT) forces after the Communist victory in China in 1949. On Jan. 4, 1948, Burma ended 60 years of colonial rule when it officially declared independence from Britain. To this day, the assassination is annually mourned across Myanmar. For 26 years, General Ne Win mismanaged the country to the point of economic ruin. In the 1960's, the organization controlled most of the Kayah State. [1] The situation did not remain stable for long, when the Shan Federal Movement, started by Nyaung Shwe Sawbwa Sao Shwe Thaik (the first President of independent Burma 1948-52) and aspiring to a 'loose' federation, was seen as a separatist movement insisting on the government honouring the right to secession in 10 years provided for by the 1947 Constitution. Conclusion: "After Burma gained independence, a concentration of nearly ninety percent of the area?s population, the distinguishing characteristics of their own culture and the Islamic faith formed an ethnic and religious minority group in the western fringe of the republic. A central British administration had controlled Burma's various ethnic groups, which then rose up against the majority ethnic group in the country, the Burmans. As a result, there were movements from the Muslim Rohingya to join the newly formed state of Pakistan. The Act received the royal assent on 10 December 1947. The history of Burma begins with several city-states inhabited by the Pyu People along the Irrawaddy River from c. 200 BCE. Today over 80 per cent of Burma’s people are Buddhist and the country has the largest number of monks as a percentage of the total population. The BIA—originally formed in Japan—was re-organized into the Burma Defense Army (BDA), of which Aung San was the head. Why did the United States become involved in the Philippines' affairs? The Indian independence movement first gained momentum at the beginning of the 20th century, and after World War I Gandhi organized the first of … The Japanese left in 1945, and, in 1948, Burma gained its independence from the British. CWB – USA follows the U.N. in recognizing Myanmar as the country’s official name. For successive generations their ethnicity and Islam have been practically not distinguishable. In 1962, the army took over the elected government and have ruled ever since. The education system in Burma was one of the areas in which profound changes had taken place. Burma and Ceylon (later Sri Lanka) obtained their independence soon after India but in Malaysia the situation was more complex. In Myanmar: World War II and after …announced the formation of the Burma Independence Army (BIA). During World War II Aung San Suu Kyi, a Burmese opposition politician and chairperson of the National League for Democracy found an opportunity to gain Burmese independence. [1], Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}16°51′N 096°11′E / 16.850°N 96.183°E / 16.850; 96.183, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Post-independence_Burma,_1948–1962&oldid=971431320, States and territories established in 1948, States and territories disestablished in 1962, Articles needing additional references from October 2014, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Burmese-language text, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 August 2020, at 03:16. Born in 1945 as the daughter of Burma's national hero Aung San, she was two years old when he was assassinated, just before Burma gained the independence to which he had dedicated his life. Under British colonial rule, Burma was the richest country in Southeast Asia, awash in rubies, oil, and valuable timber. Burma initially had a constitutional government, but there was much fighting for power within the country. On the basis of Panglong agreement, negotiations went on and eventually Burma gained independence on 4th January 1948 together with frontier areas. CWB – USA follows the U.N. in recognizing Myanmar as the country’s official name. By 1958, the country was largely beginning to recover economically, but was beginning to fall apart politically due to a split in the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) into two factions, one led by Thakins Nu and Tin, the other by Ba Swe and Kyaw Nyein. So began the story I wrote for the 60 th anniversary of Myanmar’s independence … It was only in the year 1937 that it became a separate colony. Today over 80 per cent of Burma’s people are Buddhist and the country has the largest number of monks as a percentage of the total population. Since then, civil war has continued in the country. Burma was colonized by the British, and gained independence in early 1948. The Burma Independence Act 1947 (1947, 11 Geo. In 1948, Burma finally gained its independence but the presence of the British colonists had inevitably transformed the nation, its government, society, and institutions. Shan National Sao Shwe Taik became the new country’s first President and U Nu its first Prime Minister. 1957. In the 19th century, following three Anglo-Burmese Wars, Burma was colonized by Britain. Since independence The unsettled early years, 1948–62. On 4 January 1948, at an auspicious middle-of-the-night hour, Burma became independent and left the British Commonwealth. A foreign policy of neutrality was decided upon, but, because of internal strife, no peace resulted. By the ninth century a group of people from the north, the Bamar, gained prominence and … Occupied by the Japanese during World War II, Burma gained independence from the British in 1948. Occupied by the Japanese during World War II, Burma gained independence from the British in 1948. In 1989, the government changed the country’s name to Myanmar. It ended the six decades of colonial rule under Britain. He resigned from the Legislative Assembly and was arrested for sedition. The first President, Sao Shwe Thaik, who was in office from 1948 until 1952, was succeeded by Ba U. Separated from India and made a Crown Colony in 1937, the Union of Burma gained its independence as a republic in 1948, following World War II. On Jan. 4, 1948, Burma ended 60 years of colonial rule when it officially declared independence from Britain. They subsequently disbanded the BIA and formed a smaller Burma Defense Army, with … Sao Shwe Thaik's son, Sao Mye Thaik, was shot dead in what was generally described as a 'bloodless' coup. For 26 years, General Ne Win mismanaged the country to the point of economic ruin. Burma. Until the year 1989, most of the regimes adopted and used the term Burma as the official name of the country. The Philippines gained full independence from the US in. Known as the “ Burma Independence Army ,” it grew with the advance of the Japanese and tended to take over the local administration of occupied areas. In 1940, before Japan formally entered the Second World War, The military coup in the 1960s drove … Presidents Of Myanmar (Burma) History of the Burmese Presidency. Burma gained independence from Great Britain in 1948. In 1948, as Burma gained independence from the British, Indians had to face even more xenophobia as the new state defined itself in racial terms. The internal conflict in Myanmar is a series of insurgencies in Myanmar that began shortly after the country, then known as Burma, gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1948. The Karen are an ethnic group from Burma (Myanmar), many of whom fled Burma due to religious and ethnic persecution by the government. In 1962, the army took over the elected government and have ruled ever since. In 1948, Burma gained independence from British colonial rule. [1] The situation became very unstable in parliament, with U Nu surviving a no-confidence vote only with the support of the opposition National United Front (NUF), believed to have 'cryptocommunists' amongst them. [1], Army hardliners now saw the 'threat' of the CPB coming to an agreement with U Nu through the NUF, and in the end U Nu 'invited' Army Chief of Staff General Ne Win to take over the country. 140,000 refugees from Burma, mostly Karen, are living in refugee camps in Thailand, some for as many as 20 years. As a result, there were movements from the Muslim Rohingya to join the newly formed state of Pakistan. [1] [2] This was despite the unexpected success of U Nu's 'Arms for Democracy' offer taken up by U Seinda in the Arakan, the Pa'O, some Mon and Shan groups, but more significantly by the PVO surrendering their arms. Japan declared independence for Myanmar from the British, but the Burmese continued to struggle for freedom from foreign domination, this time by the Japanese. Which Indochinese country was under control of a junta for decades? After gaining its independence in the year 1948, Burma experienced a number of military coups in the 60s, the 70s and the 80s. 1947 - Bogyoke Aung San, Burma's ethnic leaders and the British sign the Panglong Agreement to form the Union of Burma. For successive generations their ethnicity and Islam have been practically not distinguishable. Massacre Under Japanese Occupation Japan helped Burma gain this independence by fighting alongside against Britain. It was 1948 when Burma gained independence from Britain. What about the military rule? By the day of colonization, there was a solid feeling of resentment from the rule of the British, with Buddhist monks actively playing an important part in the independence movement. While Myanmar mourned the death of a hero, Prime Minister Attlee and Aung San's protégé, U Nu, signed an agreement for the transfer of power in October 1947. VI, Ch. The Botataung, Kyemon and Rangoon Daily were also closed down. 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